How to Prevent Water Pollution

Water is the elixir of life

Why does it feel like something has dawn upon us, when we realize that water, which constitutes over 75% of our planet’s surface, is one of the primordial constituents of our existence. And thinking of this, we can all see to the extent that we have gone in terms of our ignorance towards water pollution; and for which we certainly don’t need to go take a peek in the rivers, beaches, or lakes around us. The information has already been gathered and distributed, which is in processing as of now. But, somewhere along the way, there is delay. It seems as if we are waiting for the situation to get even worse before we come to implementing all the philosophies referring to the prevention of water pollution.

The water pollution cycleBeginning to think of it, the release of harmful chemicals and sewage in the oceans is the major cause of water pollution. We all know that. And some also realize that this aggravates the risk of acid rains. Oceans along the developing countries are found to have been polluted with enormous amount of inorganic wastes, and this has gone to an extent where some waters along the shores of these oceans are found glittering in daylight; a glitter that is very different from the natural phenomenon caused by the sun’s rays meeting a water body, thereby revealing tremendous amounts of insoluble chemicals floating on the water’s surface. These chemicals rise along with water vapor and form clouds, which in turn shower acid rain. This polluted water enters the soil and affects the growth of vegetation. We, being connected to these elements in our daily lives, come in direct contact with water pollution. We need to realize that we contaminate the water which we rely on, to survive.

Water pollution causes several health-related complications like typhoid, vomiting, nausea, headache, diarrhea, and many water-borne diseases. Polluted water enters the food chain, and affects all the organisms in the chain, seldom proving fatal. It leads to depletion of oxygen (anoxia), causing turbidity in aquatic plants and animals, thus affecting aquatic life to a great extent. Several varieties of fish contain mercury in them which enter their body, and are unsafe to eat. This mercury will remain in the oceans permanently, slowly enters the food chain, thus affecting humans and many other terrestrial animals.

The need to prevent water pollution

The foremost action that needs to be taken is to stop releasing toxic materials such as paints, oil, polishes and gasoline in the water. They need to be treated before disposal. Wastes that are inorganic have to undergo recycling, and until our system is shaped properly, we will witness slow death of our biosphere. Ignorance knows extreme – we can also find solid wastes like plastic and metal objects disposed off in various water bodies. Release of sewage and waste from industries directly into the sea and river water cannot go overlooked for long. Many oil and petroleum refineries are built on oceans. They generate enormous amounts of waste while refining the oils. These by-products are released into the oceans on a large scale. This needs to be controlled at some point. Some of these chemicals cannot be removed from the oceans and stay there forever inducing mutagenic changes in the body.

Release of chemical wastes into water bodies should be checked for closely

Release of chemical wastes into water bodies should be checked for closely

Prior to releasing hazardous wastes such as oil based materials, heavy metals such as silicon and mercury, ammonia, and volatile organic compounds need specialized treatment. Water, following sewage treatment, should be reused by industries and not released into other water bodies. Also, it would be true sight of utmost disturbance to witness the amount of clean and usable water getting wasted during industrial processes everyday. With completed efforts, factories and industries can structure their processes so that they use water sparingly and efficiently. And if power plants generate heated water the water should be treated using cooling ponds, cooling towers, and the process of cogeneration.

Here are few steps that you can take in order to prevent water pollution

  • Never throw litter or trash that cannot be decomposed, into lakes, ponds, and oceans around you. Take a step further and lift any solid wastes that you come across along the shores of beaches, and around the banks of rivers, and dispose them off at a nearby trash bin.
  • Detergents and synthetic material used for daily purposes also pollute the water, so their use must be minimized
  • Make use of natural fertilizers in your garden, they are found to be less harmful than those that have a chemical base
  • There are two drainage systems in our house, one is to drain the sewage and the other is to drain rain water. You should adapt proper drainage systems in your house such that you do not mix both these drainage systems. Both of them should be maintained properly.
  • Let’s limit the use of water to just what is required. By using water efficiently in our daily lives, we reduce the amount of contaminated water going for sewage treatment.

Preventing water pollution due to agriculture:

When the soil in farms and fields gets loosened, it gets washed off into nearby ponds and rivers. If you use synthetic fertilizers in your field then the residual chemicals also gain access to these water bodies. Natural fertilizers made by decomposing the wastes from farms should be preferred over buying fertilizers. Used pesticides and animal slurry from farms should not be released into nearby water bodies.

Please recycleRecycle and reuse:

  • Recycling the wastes which cannot be decomposed will help control water pollution to a considerable extent
  • Plastic and plastic products, used motor oils and filters should be recycled and used.
  • If you notice any illegal dumping then report it to the municipality. Dumping of trash, motor oil, paint products, and other harmful chemicals into the storm drainers is illegal.

Other methods of controlling water pollution

  • Plantation of trees will also help optimally in this situation. Grab a safe corner and plant trees at your vicinity. This helps in cleaning the underground water. Roots of trees penetrate deep into the ground and clean the water.
  • Water hyacinth is a plant that also helps in removal of heavy chemicals and metals from the water to make it pollution free. Try planting them in water bodies that are within your reach, and watch nature demonstrate magic.
  • Nuclear testing carried out under water are largely responsible for water pollution, and releases an enormous amount of greenhouse gases. We carry out nuclear explosions under the water so that they cause less damage for the organisms on the ground, but they cause great damage to oceanic life, and have adverse impacts on the surrounding area. Radioactive elements released into the water cause drastic changes in mutagens of aquatic life, and to other organisms through the food chain. These changes become hereditary and are transferred through generations.

And remember, we need to encourage the people around us, so that our society will then work as a team. We need to incorporate preserving the environment as one of our essential goals of life. Let’s share the vision of nature and work towards preventing all types of pollution.


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  4. How to Prevent Air Pollution
  5. How to Prevent Water Retention

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