The process of DNA transcription basically refers to the act of transcribing genetic information from DNA to RNA. The purpose of the transcription is to produce proteins. Protein is one of the most pivotal building blocks of your body that forms an essential part of human diet that influence your strength and energy. DNA is found in the nucleus of our cells and by coding cellular activities controls the production of proteins and enzymes. However, the information in DNA does not get directly converted into proteins, and is needed to be first copied into RNA. The process ensures that the information contained in the DNA does not get tainted.
A basic DNA structure consists of four nucleotide bases, namely, adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T) that are paired in the arrangement of A-T and C-G to give DNA its double helical form. Now that we have understood the basic concept of DNA transcription, let’s find out how to transcribe DNA.
There are three major steps in the process of DNA transcription:
- RNA polymerase join to DNA
RNA polymerase is the enzyme that helps to transcribe DNA. The enzyme is guided precisely by specific nucleotide sequences on where to commence and where to end. At a specific area called promoter region, RNA polymerase attaches to the DNA in the process of transcription
- The Stage of Elongation
The stage of elongation implies the act of certain proteins called transcription factors that assist in unwinding the DNA strand and allow RNA polymerase to transcribe only a single strand of DNA at a time into a single stranded RNA polymer called messenger RNA (mRNA). The strand, which is called antisense strand, serves as the template in the process of transcription. The strand that is not transcribed by RNA polymerase is called the sense strand. Like DNA, RNA is also composed of nucleotide bases, namely cytosine, guanine, adenine and uricil (U). In the process of transcription when RNA polymerase transcribes the DNA, adenine pairs with uricil and guanine pairs with cytosine, in a structure of A-U and G-C
- The Final Sage –Termination
In the final stage of termination, RNA polymerase keeps moving along the DNA till it reaches a terminator sequence. After reaching that point, RNA polymerase detaches from the DNA by releasing the mRNA polymer
You must keep in mind that since proteins are constructed by the process of translation in the cytoplasm of the cell; mRNA in order to reach the cytoplasm must cross the nuclear membrane. Once reaching the cytoplasm, mRNA along with a RNA molecule called transfer RNA and ribosome work hand-in-hand to produce proteins. For the fact that a single DNA sequence can be transcribed at single time by many RNA polymerase molecules, proteins can be manufactured at quite a large quantity.
This is the process you need to understand specifically if you are keen to know how to transcribe DNA. DNA transcription is a very important process for proper and normal functioning of the human body, for the process ensures that our genes get passed on and replace parts of our cells that get damaged.